The following release quality passive scan rules are included in this add-on:
This scan rule checks for the existence and validity of the X-Frame-Options header, or Content-Security-Policy ‘frame-ancestors’ directive.
At MEDIUM and HIGH thresholds this only looks at non-error or non-redirect HTML responses.
At LOW threshold it looks at all text responses including errors and redirects.
The following conditions may result in an alert:
By default no alerts will be raised in the response includes a Content-Security-Policy ‘frame-ancestors’ element as this take precedence over the X-Frame-Options header. However at LOW threshold the above issues will still be reported but at a LOW risk.
Latest code: AntiClickjackingScanRule.java
Check server responses for HTTP 500 - Internal Server Error type responses or those that contain a known error string.
Note: Matches made within script blocks or files are against the entire content not only comments.
At HIGH Threshold don’t alert on HTTP 500 (but do for other error patterns).
For Internal Server Error (HTTP 500) the Alert is set to Low risk and in other case it is set to Medium risk.
Note: If the Custom Payloads addon is installed you can add your own Application Error strings (payloads) in the Custom Payloads options panel. They will also be searched for in responses as they’re passively scanned. Keep in mind that the greater the number of payloads the greater the amount of time needed to passively scan.
It is also possible to add patterns to the
xml/application_errors.xml file in ZAP’s user directory.
Latest code: ApplicationErrorScanRule.java
Checks “Cache-Control” response headers against general industry best practice settings for protection of sensitive content.
At LOW threshold all responses are considered including errors and redirects.
Latest code: CacheControlScanRule.java
This check identifies responses where the HTTP Content-Type header declares a charset different from the charset defined by the body of the HTML or XML. When there’s a charset mismatch between the HTTP header and content body Web browsers can be forced into an undesirable content-sniffing mode to determine the content’s correct character set.
The scan rule handles various conditions depending on the Threshold set for the rule, as follows:
Latest code: CharsetMismatchScanRule.java
Raises an alert if the response is lacking a Content-Type header or if the header exists but the value is empty.
Latest code: ContentTypeMissingScanRule.java
Latest code: CookieHttpOnlyScanRule.java
Cookies can be scoped by domain or path. This check is only concerned with domain scope.The domain scope applied to a cookie determines which domains can access it. For example, a cookie can be scoped strictly to a subdomain e.g.
www.nottrusted.com, or loosely scoped to a parent domain e.g.
nottrusted.com. In the latter case, any subdomain of
nottrusted.com can access the cookie. Loosely scoped cookies are common in mega-applications like
Latest code: CookieLooselyScopedScanRule.java
Looks for cookies set during HTTPS sessions, raises an alert for those that are set but do not include the secure flag. A cookie set with the secure flag will not be sent during a plain HTTP session.
Latest code: CookieSecureFlagScanRule.java
This reports any cookies that:
Latest code: CookieSameSiteScanRule.java
Validates whether or not scripts are included from domains other than the domain hosting the content. By looking at the “src” attributes of “script” tags in HTML responses.
Allowed Cross-Domain scripts:
Latest code: CrossDomainScriptInclusionScanRule.java
Passively scan responses for Cross Domain MisConfigurations, which relax the Same Origin Policy in the web browser, for instance.
The current implementation looks at excessively permissive CORS headers.
Latest code: CrossDomainMisconfigurationScanRule.java
The Content Security Policy (CSP) passive scan rule parses and analyzes CSP headers for potential misconfiguration or weakness. This rule leverages Shape Security’s Salvation library to perform it’s parsing and assessment of CSPs.
If a response has multiple CSPs they are analyzed individually, as there is no sure way to intersect/merge the policies and further different browsers have varying levels of CSP support and enforcement.
Latest code: ContentSecurityPolicyScanRule.java
This rule identifies “potential” vulnerabilities with the lack of known CSRF countermeasures in pages with forms.
At HIGH alert threshold only scans messages which are in scope.
Post 2.5.0 you can specify a comma separated list of identifiers in the
rules.csrf.ignorelist parameter via the Options ‘Rule configuration’ panel. Any FORMs with a name or ID that matches one of these identifiers will be ignored when scanning for missing Anti-CSRF tokens. Only use this feature to ignore FORMs that you know are safe, for example search forms. Form element names are sorted and de-duplicated when they are printed in the Zap Report.
Latest code: CsrfCountermeasuresScanRule.java
This passive scan rule checks the content of web responses for known Debug Error message fragments. Access to such details may provide a malicious individual with means by which to further abuse the web site. They may also leak data not specifically meant for end user consumption.
Latest code: InformationDisclosureDebugErrorsScanRule.java
Attempts to identify the existence of sensitive details within the visited URIs themselves (this may include parameters, document names, directory names, etc.).
Latest code: InformationDisclosureInUrlScanRule.java
Identifies the existence of sensitive details within the Referrer header field of HTTP requests (this may include parameters, document names, directory names, etc.).
Note: In the case of suspected credit card identifiers in the Referrer value, the potential credit card numbers are looked up against a Bank Identification Number List (BINList). If a match is found the alert is raised at High confidence and additional details are added to the ‘Other Information’ field in the alert, otherwise the alerts will have Medium confidence. See: binlist-data for more information.
Latest code: InformationDisclosureReferrerScanRule.java
Analyzes web content to identify comments which contain potentially sensitive details. Which may lead to further attack or exposure of unintended data.
Latest code: InformationDisclosureSuspiciousCommentsScanRule.java
HTTP basic or digest authentication has been used over an unsecured connection. The credentials can be read and then reused by someone with access to the network.
Latest code: InsecureAuthenticationScanRule.java
The response contains a Java Server Faces (JSF) ViewState value that has no cryptographic protections.
Latest code: InsecureJsfViewStatePassiveScanRule.java
For content served via HTTPS analyse all the src attributes in the response looking for those sourced via plain HTTP.
Latest code: MixedContentScanRule.java
Checks the response content for inclusion of RFC 1918 IPv4 addresses as well as Amazon EC2 private hostnames (for example, ip-10-0-56-78). This information can give an attacker useful information about the IP address scheme of the internal network, and might be helpful for further attacks targeting internal systems.
This passive scan rule may generate false positives in the case of larger dotted numeric strings, such as vp09.02.51.10.01.09.16, where the latter 4 octets appear to be a RFC 1918 IPv4 address. After review an analyst can mark such alerts as False Positives in ZAP. For handling during repeated scans the “Context Alert Filters” add-on could be leveraged.
Latest code: InfoPrivateAddressDisclosureScanRule.java
This checks response headers for the presence of X-Powered-By details.
Latest code: XPoweredByHeaderInfoLeakScanRule.java
This scan rule checks for the existence of session token type parameters being rewritten to the URL. To help reduce false positives the rule checks the length of the token value, if the value of the parameter is not greater than 8 characters in length then the parameter is ignored (i.e.: survey?sId=5 would not be flagged as vulnerable).
Latest code: InfoSessionIdUrlScanRule.java
A timestamp was disclosed by the application/web server.
At HIGH threshold this rule does not alert on potential timestamps that are not within a range of plus or minus one year.
Latest code: TimestampDisclosureScanRule.java
If any context contains defined users this scan rule checks all responses for the presence of hashed values representing those usernames.
Note: If the Custom Payloads addon is installed you can add your own Username strings (payloads) in the Custom Payloads options panel. They will also be hashed and searched for in responses as they’re passively scanned. Keep in mind that the greater the number of payloads the greater the amount of time needed to passively scan. (The default payloads are “Admin” and “admin”.)
Discovery of any such value may represent an Insecure Direct Object Reference (IDOR) vulnerability. Alerts are only raised as informational items as further manual testing is required in order to confirm and assess impact.
Latest code: UsernameIdorScanRule.java
Attempts to identify VIEWSTATE parameters and analyze said parameters for various best practices or protective measures such as:
Latest code: ViewstateScanRule.java
This scan rule check for the Anti-MIME-Sniffing header X-Content-Type-Options and ensures it is set to ‘nosniff’.
At MEDIUM and HIGH thresholds this rule does not alert on client or server error responses or redirects.
At LOW threshold it will alert on all responses including errors and redirects.
Latest code: XContentTypeOptionsScanRule.java
This checks response headers for the presence of X-AspNet-Version/X-AspNetMvc-Version details.
Latest code: XAspNetVersionScanRule.java
This checks response headers for the presence of X-Debug-Token and X-Debug-Token-Link details. Which indicates the use/exposure of Symfony’s Profiler. Symfony’s Profiler provides access to a significant amount of information of interest to malicious individuals and Security Testers.
Latest code: XDebugTokenScanRule.java